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In the sixteenth century the Greek New Testament was published for the first time in printed form. The great Dutch philologist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam had established a text from a handful of manuscripts dating from dating the new testament manuscripts later Middle Ages. Unfortunately he used only manuscripts of inferior quality for his edition of A few verses from the Apocalypse were lacking in the manuscripts at his disposal.
He simply re-translated them from the current Latin version! Erasmus' intention with his edition was to provide a basis for a new Latin translation of the New Testament. The Reformers used it to produce vernacular translations of their own. Until the nineteenth century New Testament scholars and translators availed themselves only sparingly of other manuscripts. Then, within a fairly short period, a number of manuscripts of superior quality became available, mainly dating the new testament manuscripts to the work of the German scholar Constantin Tischendorf.
These manuscripts dated from the fourth and fifth centuries and presented a text that was at least free from the accretions of a later age. We had to wait, however, until the 70's and 80's of the nineteenth century for new critical editions of the New Testament. Tischendorf himself and the British scholars Westcott and Hort dsting two rival editions of the Greek text.
They believed that their text testaent the original as well as possible, even if it was based on manuscripts dating from at least three centuries after the New Manusfripts was written. Gradually the new critical texts replaced Erasmus' text, which has not received much attention from serious scholars anymore. Thousands more ancient Greek manuscripts of the New Testament have become known in the past years.
Monastery libraries in countries around the Mediterranean have yielded most of the manuscripts. The textual critics of the Greek New Testament have been able to come to terms with only a few of them. Most of them are not very old manuscripts anyhow, and in textual criticism it is age and quality that counts, not mere quantity. In the 30's and 60's of the twentieth century a number of other, very important manuscripts have become available. We owe this to the efforts of two wealthy book collectors, Chester Beatty and Martin Bodmer.
These manuscripts are of a special class for two reasons. They are written on papyrus and date from well before the fourth century. The earliest papyrus manuscripts come very dating the new testament manuscripts to the time when the New Testament was written. Of course, manuscripts on papyrus were known before, but these dated from a much later period and tended to be rather fragmentary. For almost all New Testament books we now dating scams on match.com manuscripts earlier than the fourth century.
How do we know these manuscripts are so very early? How do we know their dates for certain? Some of you may think "scientific" tests on the physical structure of the papyrus may yield such dates. In fact they cannot, because such tests are very inaccurate. No, we can date papyrus manuscripts, any manuscript for that matter, simply by looking at the way it is written. Handwriting is a product of human culture and as such it is always developing. Differences in handwriting are bound to appear within one generation.
Just compare the handwriting of your parents with your own. Or look at your own scribblings of a few years ago. It is the same handwriting dating the new testament manuscripts today but an expert, a paleographer, can distinguish not unimportant differences. He cannot establish the exact date but he can confidently place one handwriting in the 30's and another in the 80's. Even printed texts can easily be dated according to the outward appearance of the type or font used by the printer.
For such an ancient period as that between A. There is infinitely less comparative material. Nevertheless we are now in a tue comfortable position to date papyrus manuscripts according to their handwriting. We do not have to rely on manuscripts of the New Testament only. We have manuscrilts of papyrus manuscripts of Greek pagan literary texts from this period and again hundreds of carefully ddating papyrus documents that show the same types of handwriting.
These documents are very important yestament paleographers because they are often exactly dated. As a rule New Testament manuscripts on papyrus dating the new testament manuscripts not. A careful comparison of the papyrus documents and manuscripts of the second and third centuries has established beyond doubt that about forty Greek papyrus manuscripts of the New Testament date from this very period.
Unfortunately only six of them are extensively preserved. Even within the period that runs from c. For about sixty years now a tiny papyrus fragment of the Gospel of John has been the oldest "manuscript" of the New Testament. This manuscript P52 has generally been dated to ca. This fact alone proved that the original Gospel of John was written earlier, viz. We now have early and very early evidence for the text of the New Testament. A classified list of the most important manuscripts will make skateboarder dating website clear.
Numbers preceded by a P refer to papyri, the letters refer to parchment manuscripts. Mark P45 B Sin. A Luke P4,P45,P75 Thw Sin. A John P66 P45,P75 B Sin. A Acts P45 B Sin. A Romans-Hebrews P46 B Sin. A James-Jude P72,B Sin. A Apocalypse P47 Sin. A As you can see, from the fourth century onwards the material base for establishing the text of the Greek New Testament is very good indeed.
SinaiticusA Alexandrinus and B Vaticanus testameng almost complete parchment manuscripts. With the help of the earlier papyrus manuscripts we have been able to establish that the text of these three great manuscripts is to a large extent reliable. The papyrus manuscript P75 was the latest to be published, but it showed a virtually identical text to manuscript B. This settled the vexed question whether we have in the parchment manuscripts of the fourth testamdnt fifth centuries a safe guide to the original text of the New Testament.
That is not to say that we can dispense with later manuscripts of the New Testament. With the exception of Sin. Moreover they contain scribal errors of all sorts.