Radioactive dating is a method of dating rocks and minerals using radioactive isotopes. This method is useful for igneous and metamorphic rocks, which cannot be dated by the stratigraphic correlation method radioissotopes for sedimentary rocks. Over naturally-occurring isotopes are known. Some do not change with time and form stable isotopes i. The unstable or more commonly known radioactive isotopes break down by radioactive decay into other isotopes.
Radioactive decay is a natural process and comes from the atomic nucleus radioisotppes unstable and releasing bits and pieces. These are released as radioactive particles there are many types. This decay process leads to a more balanced nucleus and when the number of protons and neutrons balance, the atom becomes stable. This radioactivity can be used for dating, since a radioactive 'parent' element decays into a stable 'daughter' element at a constant rate.
For geological purposes, this is taken as one year. Another way of expressing this is the half-life period given the symbol T. The half-life is the time it takes for half of the parent atoms to decay. The relationship between the two is: Many different radioactive isotopes and techniques are used for dating. All rely on the fact that certain elements particularly uranium and potassium contain radioisotopes used for dating number of different isotopes whose half-life is exactly known and therefore the relative concentrations of these isotopes radioisotopes used for dating a rock or mineral can measure the age.
For an element to be useful for geochronology measuring geological timethe isotope must be reasonably abundant and produce daughter isotopes at a good rate. Either a whole rock or a single mineral radioisotopex can be dated. Some techniques place the sample in a nuclear reactor first to excite the isotopes present, then measure these isotopes using a mass spectrometer such as in the argon-argon scheme. Others place mineral grains under a special microscope, firing a laser beam at the grains which ionises the mineral and releases the isotopes.
Radilisotopes isotopes are then measured within fo same machine by an attached mass spectrometer an example of this is SIMS analysis. This is a common dating method mainly used by archaeologists, as it can only date geologically recent organic materials, usually charcoal, but also bone and antlers. All living organisms take up carbon from radikisotopes environment including a small proportion of the radioactive radioisotopes used for dating 14C formed from nitrogen as a result of cosmic ray bombardment.
The amount of carbon isotopes within living organisms reaches an equilibrium value, on death no more is taken up, and the 14C present starts to decay radioisotopes used for dating a known rate. The amount of 14C present and the known rate of decay of 14C and the equilibrium value gives the length of time elapsed since the death of the organism. This method faces problems because the cosmic ray flux has changed over time, but a calibration factor is applied to take this into account.
Radiocarbon dating is normally suitable for organic materials less than 50 years old because beyond that time the amount of 14C becomes too small to be accurately measured. This scheme was developed in radioisotopes used for dating became more useful when mass spectrometers were improved in the late s and early s. However, both Rb and Sr easily follow fluids that move through rocks or escape during some types of metamorphism.
This technique is less used now. The dual decay of potassium K to radioieotopes argon and 40Ca calcium was worked out between and This technique has become more widely used since the late s. Its great advantage is that most rocks contain potassium, usually locked up in feldspars, clays and amphiboles. However, potassium is very mobile during metamorphism and alteration, and so this technique is not used much for old rocks, but is useful for rocks of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, particularly unaltered igneous rocks.
This technique developed in the late s but came into vogue in the early s, through step-wise release of the isotopes. This technique uses the same minerals and rocks as for K-Ar dating but restricts measurements to the argon isotopic system which is not so affected by metamorphic and alteration events. It is used for very old to very young rocks. The decay of Sm to Nd for dating rocks began in the mids and was widespread by the early s.
It is useful for dating very old igneous and metamorphic rocks and also meteorites and other cosmic fragments. However, there is a limited range in Sm-Nd isotopes in many igneous rocks, although metamorphic rocks that contain the mineral garnet are useful as this mineral has a large range in Sm-Nd isotopes. This technique also helps in determining the composition and evolution of the Earth's mantle and bodies in the universe.
The Re-Os isotopic system was first developed in the early s, but recently has been improved for accurate age determinations. The main limitation is that it only works on certain igneous rocks as most rocks have insufficient Re and Os or lack evolution of the isotopes. This technique is good for iron meteorites and the mineral molybdenite. This system is highly favoured for accurate dating of igneous and metamorphic rocks, through many different techniques.
It was used by the beginning of the s, but took until the early s to produce accurate ages ysed rocks. The great advantage is that almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks contain sufficient U and Pb for this dating. It can be used on radipisotopes whole radioisotopes used for dating, mineral concentrates isotope dilution technique or single grains SHRIMP technique.
The SHRIMP Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe technique was developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences, Radioisotopes used for dating National University, Canberra in the early s. It has revolutionised age dating using the U-Pb isotopic system. Using the SHRIMP, selected areas of growth on single grains daring zircon, baddeleyite, sphene, rutile and monazite can be accurately dated to less than years in some cases. It can even date nonradioactive minerals when they contain inclusions of radioisotopes used for dating and monazite, as in sapphire grains.